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  #1  
02-21-2021, 10:12 PM
 
: May 2017
: 3,709
Post Reflections upon the hadith of the cistern, and the groups whom the angels will push away from it Pauses de rflexion propos du hadi



Reflections upon the hadith of the cistern, and the groups whom the angels will push away from it

Pauses de rflexion propos du hadith voquant le bassin et explication des communauts refoules par les anges loin de l




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  #2  
02-21-2021, 10:14 PM
 
: May 2017
: 3,709
Post

Reflections upon the hadith of the cistern, and the groups whom the angels will push away from it



Question

What is the meaning of the hadith qudsi which says that when the Muslims come to the cistern of the Messenger (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) [on the Day of Resurrection], Allah will turn away a group of people, and the Messenger (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) will say: O Lord, my ummah, my ummah!, and Allah, may He be glorified and exalted, will say: You do not know what they did after you were gone?
Answer





Praise be to Allah.
Firstly:
The hadith scholars call this hadith the hadith of the cistern (hadith al-hawd). There are several versions and narrations of the hadith, with no difference between them, by the grace of Allah.
There follow some of the versions of the reports:
It was narrated that Sahl ibn Sad said: The Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: I will reach the Cistern ahead of you. He who comes to me will drink, and whoever drinks will never thirst again. There will come to me some people whom I will recognize and they will recognize me, then they will be prevented from reaching me. I shall say: They are of me, but it will be said: You do not know what they introduced after you were gone. So I shall say: Away, away with those who changed (the religion) after I was gone.
Narrated by al-Bukhaari (6212) and Muslim (2290).
It was narrated from Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) came to the graveyard and said: Peace be upon the abode of believing people, and if Allah wills we will join you soon. Would that we could see our brothers. They said: Are we not your brothers, O Messenger of Allah? He said: You are my companions. Our brothers are those who have not come yet. They said: How will you recognize those of your ummah who have not come yet, O Messenger of Allah? He said: Do you not see that if a man has a horses that have white blazes and white feet among horses that are all black, will he not recognize his horses? They said: Of course, O Messenger of Allah. He said: They will come to me with bright faces and limbs (like the white markings of a horse) because of the traces of wudoo. I will reach the Cistern before them, and men will be driven away from my Cistern as stray camels are driven away. I will call out to them, Come here! but it will be said, They changed after you were gone. And I will say, Away with you, away with you!
Narrated by Muslim (249).
It was narrated that Aaishah said: I heard the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) say: I will be at the cistern, waiting for those of you who will come to me. Some men will be prevented from reaching me, so I will say: O Lord, my ummah, my ummah! but it will be said to me: You do not know what they did after you were gone; they kept turning on their heels.
Narrated by Ahmad (41/388); classed as saheeh by the commentators.
It was narrated from Anas ibn Maalik that the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: Some of those who accompanied me will come to me at the Cistern, and when I see them and they come close to me, they will be snatched away before they reach me. I will say: O Lord, my companions [usayhaabi], my companions! but it will be said to me: You do not know what they introduced after you were gone.
Narrated by al-Bukhaari (6211) and Muslim (2304).
It was narrated that Abdullah ibn Masood said: The Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: I will reach the Cistern ahead of you, and some of you will come close to me until, when I am about to reach out (to give them a drink), they will be snatched away before they reach me. I will say: O Lord, my companions! He will say: You do not know what they introduced after you were gone.
Narrated by al-Bukhaari (6642) and Muslim (2297).
Secondly:
When reflecting upon the hadiths quoted above, we find that the words refer only to groups of people who will head towards the cistern of the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) to drink from it, but the angels will push them back. The Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) will call out to them, saying words such as my ummah or my companions (ashaabi or usayhaabi). This variation in wording is not contradictory; rather it is to be understood as referring to people who are referred to by these words, and we can sum up these people [who will be pushed away from the cistern] as follows:
1. Those who apostatised from Islam after the death of the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him), and had become Muslim during his lifetime and had seen him when they were Muslims.
2. Those who apostatised from Islam at the end of the Prophets life, but he (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) was not aware of their disbelief.
3. Hypocrites who outwardly appeared to be Muslims, but concealed disbelief in our hearts.
4. Followers of whims and desires who changed the Sunnah and teachings of the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him), such as the Raafidis and Khawaarij.
5. Some of these scholars include among these people those who committed major sins. There is evidence from the Sunnah to support this view. Imam Ahmad narrated in his Musnad (9/514) that Ibn Umar said: The Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: There will be rulers over you who will tell you to do what they do not do themselves. Whoever believes in and confirms their lies, and helps them in their wrongdoing, is not of me and I am not of him, and he will never come to me at the cistern. Classed as saheeh by the commentators on al-Musnad.
The phrase my ummah (ummati) in the hadiths is applicable to nos. 4 and 5 above. The phrase my companions (as-haabi or usayhaabi) is applicable to the first three groups.
What indicates that they are part of his ummah is the fact that he will recognise them by the traces of wudoo on their faces and limbs, which is a mark that is unique to this ummah. The Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) will recognise them by their general attributes, not individually, because they came after he was gone.
What indicates that the hypocrites are included in the phrase my companions (as-haabi) is the fact that the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said [when some of the Sahaabah suggested killing the hypocrites, and he refused to do so]: Lest people say that he is killing his companions (as-haabahu). Narrated by al-Bukhaari (3518). This is the purely linguistic sense of companionship; it does not mean that they deserve the honour of being called companions of the Prophet, because the definition of the technical term Sahaabi [companion of the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him)] is not applicable to these people.
There follow some scholarly comments on these hadiths:
1. An-Nawawi (may Allah have mercy on him) said, commenting on the hadith:
This is something concerning which the scholars differed as to what is meant. There are several views, as follows:
i. That it refers to the hypocrites and apostates. They may be gathered (on the Day of Resurrection) with the traces of wudoo on their faces and limbs, so the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) will call out to them because of the mark that is on them, but it will be said: These people are not among those concerning whom the promise was given to you, for they changed after you were gone, i.e., they did not die as Muslims although they appeared to be Muslims.
ii. That it refers to those who were Muslims at the time of the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him), then they apostatised after he was gone, so the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) will call them, even if there is no trace of wudoo on them, because he (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) knew them as Muslims during his lifetime. But it will be said: They apostatised after you were gone.
iii. That it refers to people who committed sins, including major sins, but died believing in Tawheed, and followers of innovation (bidah) whose innovation did not put them beyond the pale of Islam.
Sharh Muslim (3/136, 137).
2. Al-Haafiz Ibn Hajar (may Allah have mercy on him) said:
Al-Khattaabi said: None of the Sahaabah apostatised; rather those who apostatised were some of the rough, hardhearted Arabs, who were not known for making any effort in supporting the religion. Their apostasy does not undermine the status of the well-known Sahaabah. The phrase my companions [usayhaabi, which is a diminutive form of the word] indicates that they are few in number.
Fath al-Baari (11/385).
3. Shaykh Abd al-Qaadir al-Baghdadi (may Allah have mercy on him) said:
Ahl as-Sunnah are unanimously agreed that those who apostatised after the death of the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) from the tribes of Kindah, Haneefah, Fazaarah, Banu Asad and Banu Bakr ibn Waail were not among the Ansaar or the Muhaajireen who migrated before the conquest of Makkah; rather the religious texts give the title of Muhaajireen to those who migrated to join the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) before the conquest of Makkah. They praise be to Allah remained steadfast in adhering to the true religion and the straight path.
Ahl as-Sunnah are unanimously agreed that those who were present with the Messenger of Allah (sa) at Badr will be among the people of Paradise; the same is true of those who were present with him at Bayat ar-Radwaan in al-Hudaybiyah.
Al-Farq bayna al-Firaq (p. 353).
4. Ash-Shaatibi (may Allah have mercy on him) said:
What appears to be the case is that they will be included in the midst of this ummah, because of the signs that they will have on them [on the Day of Resurrection], namely the traces of wudoo on their faces and limbs, because that sign cannot be present on people who are complete disbelievers, whether they were originally disbelievers (and remained so) or apostates (from Islam), and because of the words they changed after you were gone. If that referred to disbelief, he would have said, they disbelieved after you were gone. The more likely interpretation is that what is meant is drifting away from the Sunnah, which is applicable to the followers of innovation. With regard to those who suggested that it refers to hypocrisy, that falls within the parameters of what we are saying, because the hypocrites did religious duties by way of dissimulation, not by way of worship, so they fulfilled religious obligations in a manner that was not proper, which is exactly what innovation is.
This is applicable to anyone who follows the Sunnah and puts it into practice by as a means of accumulating worldly gains and not as a means of worshipping Allah, may He be exalted, and drawing closer to Him because that is toying with the Sunnah and practising it in a manner that is contrary to Islamic teachings.
Al-Itisaam (1/96).
5. Al-Qurtubi (may Allah have mercy on him) said:
Our scholars (may Allah have mercy on them all) said: Everyone who apostatised from the religion of Allah, or introduced into it something with which Allah is not please and for which He did not give permission, will be among those who will be pushed away and kept away from the cistern. Those who will be most harshly pushed away are those who differed from the main body (jamaaah) of the Muslims and drifted away from their path, such as the Khawaarij and Raafidis of various groups, and the Mu tazilah who followed different whims and desires. All of these people introduced changes. The same applies to the wrongdoers who went to extremes in committing injustice and oppression, and tried to suppress the truth, killing and humiliating the people of truth, as well as those who committed major sins openly, taking the matter of sin lightly, and groups who drifted away and followed their whims and desires and innovations.
Moreover, they may be pushed away for a while, then allowed to come closer after being forgiven, if the problem had to do with misdeeds and not matters of belief (aqeedah). Based on this assumption, this group will be known by the light of wudoo, then it will be said, Away with them. But if they were among the hypocrites who lived at the time of the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him), who made an outward display of faith whilst inwardly disbelieving, they will be taken as they appear to be, then their real nature will be exposed, and it will be said, Away, away with them. No one will abide forever in hell except a disbeliever, a denier and a follower of falsehood in whose heart there was not even a mustard seeds weight of faith.
At-Tadhkirah fi Ahwaal al-Mawtaa wad-Daar al-Aakhirah (p. 352).
Thirdly:
What proves that the Raafidis are lying in their claim that the major Sahaabah Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthmaan were among the apostates is the fact that it is proven, beyond any shadow of a doubt, that apostasy occurred and the apostates were fought, so who fought whom? Those who apostatised are those whose description we have mentioned, namely some of the Arab tribes, and the one who fought them was Abu Bakr as-Siddeeq (may Allah be pleased with him) and his brethren among the Muhaajireen and Ansaar and Ali ibn Abi Taalib (may Allah be pleased with him) also took part with them in fighting the apostates; he took one of the captured women of Banu Haneefah as a concubine, and she bore him a son who later became a prominent scholar, namely Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah. If the noble Sahaabah Abu Bakr and Umar, and the Muhaajireen and Ansaar who were with them, were apostates, then what would be the case with regard to Musaylimah and al-Ansi, and their followers? No doubt this view (of the Raafidis) is the very essence of hypocrisy and troublemaking; it is a lie and false witness.
Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on him) said:
May Allah punish these apostates and liars, the followers of the apostates, who are striving to oppose Allah, His Messenger, His Book and His religion; they exited Islam and threw it behind their backs, and they strove against Allah and His Messenger and His believing slaves, taking as allies the apostates and dissenters. This talk and other things they say, confirm that these people, who bear such resentment towards Abu Bakr as-Siddeeq (may Allah be pleased with him) and other Sahaabah, are the same as the disbelieving apostates, like those apostates whom Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him) fought.
Minhaaj as-Sunnah an-Nabawiyyah (4/490).
And he (may Allah have mercy on him) said:
To sum up, the story of Musaylimah the Liar, and his claim of prophethood, and Banu Haneefah in al-Yamaamah following him, and Abu Bakr fighting them for that, is something that is well-known and narrated via mutawaatir reports; it is known to everyone, elite and common folk alike, like any other well-known incident that was narrated via mutawaatir reports. This story is not something that is known to the elite only; rather it is more widely known among the people than the Battle of the Camel and the Battle of Siffeen. It was narrated from one of the scholars of kalaam that he denied that the battles of the Camel and Siffeen took place, even though this denial was unfounded; yet we do not know of anyone who denied that the Muslims fought the people of al-Yamaamah and that Musaylimah the Liar claimed to be a prophet, and the Muslims fought him because of that.
As for these Raafidis, their denial [that Abu Bakr fought the apostates] is akin to their denial that Abu Bakr and Umar were buried alongside the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him), and their denial that Abu Bakr and Umar were allies of the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) and among his inner circle, and they claim that the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) appointed Ali as his successor, mentioning him by name. In fact some of them even denied that Zaynab, Ruqayyah and Umm Kulthoom were the daughters of the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him)! They said that they were daughters of Khadeejah from her first husband, who was a disbeliever, to whom she was married before the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him).
Minhaaj as-Sunnah an-Nabawiyyah (4/492, 493).
And he (may Allah have mercy on him) said:
They namely the Raafidis claim that Abu Bakr and Umar, and those who followed them, apostatised from Islam! But the elite and the common folk know that Abu Bakr was the one who fought the apostates. If they claim that the people of al-Yamaamah were wronged and killed unlawfully, and they disapprove of fighting them and try to find excuses for them, then this proves that these people [Ahl as-Sunnah wal-Jamaaah] are following in the footsteps of those earlier generations [the Sahaabah], and that Abu Bakr as-Siddeeq and his followers fight the apostates in every era.
The claim of Ibn al-Mutahhar al-Hilli ar-Raafidi, that they regarded the tribe of Banu Haneefah as apostates because they refused to pay zakaah to Abu Bakr, is one of the most blatant and egregious lies, because Abu Bakr only fought Banu Haneefah due to their belief in Musaylimah the Liar and his claim to be a prophet. As for those who withheld zakaah, they were people other than Banu Haneefah. Concerning those people, some of the Sahaabah were not certain about the permissibility of fighting them, but none of them ever had any doubt about the obligation to fight Banu Haneefah
Minhaaj as-Sunnah an-Nabawiyyah (4/493, 494).
Fourthly:
It may be said to these Raafidis: Why did the first three caliphs apostatise and not Ali? Why is it that people such as Ammaar ibn Yaasir, al-Miqdaad ibn al-Aswad, Abu Dharr and Salmaan al-Faarisi were exempted from apostasy? Or is this simply nothing but whims and desires?!
We believe that the Muhaajireen and Ansaar will be in Paradise forever. Allah, may He be exalted, says (interpretation of the meaning):
And the first forerunners [in the faith] among the Muhajireen and the Ansar and those who followed them with good conduct - Allah is pleased with them and they are pleased with Him, and He has prepared for them gardens beneath which rivers flow, wherein they will abide forever. That is the great attainment.
[at-Tawbah 9:100].
We believe that Abu Bakr is in Paradise, Umar is in Paradise, Uthmaan is in Paradise and Ali is in Paradise, and this applies to all of those whom the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) mentioned by name; all of them will drink from the cistern of the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him), and will enjoy that drink. Woe and doom to those who curse them and regard them as disbelievers, when they themselves are more deserving to be, on the Day of Resurrection, among the apostates whom these noble ones fought.
Fifthly:
These hadiths offer proof against the Raafidis, as they reiterate that the Sahaabah, with few exceptions, apostatised, and they claim that they introduced changes after the death of the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him). What this means is that they were believers before that! So what religion did they believe in after that? What did they do to deserve this denunciation and accusation of disbelief?! If you (Raafidis) say that they took the caliphate away from Ali (may Allah be pleased with), that may be described as a sin, but if it is a sin, as you claim, then their good deeds could outweigh it. It is sufficient for the Sahaabah that you revile and curse them, so that all their (alleged) sins will be transferred to you, in sha Allah.
If they (Raafidis) refer to the alleged killing of the unborn child of Faatimah, we say: thousands of people were killed at the time of Ali (may Allah be pleased with him); will you apply the same rule and regard him as a disbeliever too?
From the above, it is clear that the noble Sahaabah are the ones who defended the religion of Allah, and they are the ones who stopped the spread of apostasy, which was supported and promoted by the forerunners of the Raafidis, such as Musaylimah the Liar and al-Aswad al-Ansi. In His holy Book, Allah, may He be exalted, praised the Muhaajireen and Ansaar, in Quran that will be recited until the onset of the Hour. Their Lord has declared them to be above falling into innovation, so how could they have fallen into apostasy, when they are the ones who spread Islam far and wide?
And Allah knows best.







Source: Islam Q&A

  #3  
02-21-2021, 10:17 PM
 
: May 2017
: 3,709
root

Pauses de rflexion propos du hadith voquant le bassin et explication des communauts refoules par les anges loin de l


Question

Comment expliquer le hadith saint dont le sens se rsume en ceci que quand les musulmans se dirigeront vers le bassin du Messager d'Allah (Bndiction et salut soient sur lui), Allah fera refouler une communaut d'entre eux et que le Messager d'Allah (Bndiction et salut soient sur lui) dira:
-
O Matre! C'est ma communaut! C'est ma communaut!
-Tu ne sais pas ce qu'ils ont fait aprs toi.


Texte de la rponse





Louange Allah.
Premirement, les traditionnistes ont convenu d'appeler le hadith en question le hadith du bassin. Ce hadith est reu sous diffrentes versions et termes qui- grce Allah- ne se contredisent pas.
Voici une partie des versions et termes en question:
D'aprs Sahl ibn Saad, le Prophte (Bndiction et salut soient sur lui) a dit: Je vous prcderai au bassin. Celui qui me rejoindra boira. Celui qui boira ne souffrira plus de soif. Des gens que je connais et qui me connaissent tenteront de m'y rejoindre mais ils seront intercepts avant leur arrive auprs de moi. Je dirais: Ils font partie des miens. On me rpondra: Tu ne sais pas ce qu'ils ont fait aprs toi. Je dirai alors: Que reste loin de moi ceux qui ont chang (de comportement) aprs moi. ( Rapport par al-Bokhari,6212) et par Mouslim,2290).
D'aprs Abou Hourayra le Messager d'Allah (Bndiction et salut soient sur lui) se rendit au cimetire et dit: Paix sur toi, demeure de croyants. Nous vous rejoindrons , s'il plat Allah. Je souhaite voir nos frres.
-Ne sommes nous pas tes frres, Messager d'Allah?
-Vous tes mes compagnons. Mes frres sont ceux qui vont venir aprs moi.
-Comment pourras-tu reconnaitre ceux des membres de ta communautqui viendront aprs toi, Messager d'Allah?
-Si quelqu'un possdait des chevaux blancs avec des taches noires sur le visage entours de chevaux noirs, ne pourra-t-il pas reconnaitre ses btes?
- Si, Messager d'Allah
-Ils viendront blancs avec des marques lumineuses au visage cause de la frquence de leurs ablutions. Je les prcderai au bassin. Attention! On dtournera des hommes loin de mon bassin comme on intercepte un chameau gar. Je les interpellerai en leur disant: venez! On me dira:
-Ils ont chang de comportement aprs toi.
-Qu'ils s'en aillent trs loin! (Rapport par Mouslim,249).
D'aprs Aicha, elle a entendu le Messager d'Allah (Bndiction et salut soient sur lui) dire:J'attendrai au bassin ceux d'entre vous qui viendraient m'y rejoindre. Certains seront intercept en cours de chemin et je dirai:
-Matre! C'est ma communaut! C'est ma communaut!
-Tu ne sais pas ce qu'ils ont fait aprs toi; ils n'ont cess de revenir sur leur engagement (religieux) (Rapport par Ahmad,41/388) et jug authentique par les vrificateurs).
D'prs Anas ibn Malick , le Prophte (Bndiction et salut soient sur lui) a dit: Des gens parmi lesquels des individus qui m'ont accompagn se dirigeront vers moi au bassin. Quant ils seront porte de vue, on les interceptera et je dirai:
-Matres! Ce sont mes compagnons peu nombreux! Ce sont mes de compagnons peu nombreux!
-Tu ne sais pas ce qu'ils ont invent aprs toi. (Rapport par al-Bokhari, 6211 et par Mouslim,2304).
D'aprs Abdoullah ibn Massoud, le Prophte (Bndiction et salut soient sur lui) a dit:
-Je vous prcderai au bassin et des gens parmi vous me seront montrs et quand je m'apprterai les recevoir, on les interceptera et je dirai:
-O Matre! Ce sont mes compagnons.
-Tu ne sais pas ce qu'ils sont invent aprs toi. (Rapport par al-Bokhari,6642) et par Mouslim,2297).
Deuximement, bien rflchir sur les hadiths susmentionns, on s'aperoit qu'on y parle de groupes qui voudront se rendre au bassin du Prophte (Bndiction et salut soient sur lui) pour se dsaltrer et qui en seront dtourns par des anges et que le Prophte (Bndiction et salut soient sur lui) interpellera avec l'usage d'expressions variant entre 'ma communaut' et 'mes compagnons peu nombreux', expressions qui ne se contredisent pas car elles renvoient diffrents groupes de gens qui rpondent cette description. Nous pouvons les placer sommairement sous ces groupes:
1. Des gens qui se sont apostasis aprs le dcs du Prophte (Bndiction et salut soient sur lui). Ils taient convertis l'islam du vivant du Prophteet l'avaient vu.
2.Des gens dont l'apostasie survintvers la fin de la vie du Prophte (Bndiction et salut soient sur lui) et dont il n'tait pas au courant de leur reniement de la foi.
3. Des hypocrites qui avaient affich l'appartenance l'islam et dissimulaient leur mcrance.
4.Des gens livrs leurs passions qui ont altr la Sunna du Prophte (Bndiction et salut soient sur lui) et son enseignement l'instar des chiites rafidites et des kharidjites.
5. Certains ulmas incorporent dans ce groupe les auteurs de pchs majeurs, ide qui s'atteste dans la Sunna puisque l'imam Ahmad a rapport dans son Mousnad(9/514) d'aprs Ibn Omar que le Messager d'Allah (Bndiction et salut soient sur lui) a dit: Vous aurez des mirs qui vous donneront des ordres contredits par leurs actes. Quiconque ajoutera foi leurs mensonges et les aidera dans leur injustice ne sera plus des miens et je ne serai plus des siens et il ne me rejoindra pas au bassin. (authentifi par des vrificateurs).
L'expression 'ma communaut' usite dans les hadiths propos des 4e et 5e groupes et les expressions 'mes compagnons' et 'mes compagnons peu nombreux' mentionnes dans les trois premiers groupes font partie de ce qui indiquent que les concerns seront issus de la Communaut du Prophte (Bndiction et salut soient sur lui) car il les auront reconnus par la marque lumineuse sur leurs visages et les traces de la frquence de leurs ablutions, signalements rservs aux membres de la communaut (musulmanes). Le Prophte (Bndiction et salut soient sur lui) les reconnatra grce leur description et non leurs personnes car ils sont venus aprs eux. Fait partie des preuves de l'intgration des hypocrites dans l'appellation 'mes compagnons' la parole du Prophte: Qu'on ne dise pas qu'il tue ses compagnons. (Rapport par al-Bokhari,3518). Il s'agit ici de l'acception linguistique du terme 'compagnon' puisque le fait de les appeler 'compagnons' ne signifie pas qu'ils en possdaient le mrite car la dfinition conventionnelle de 'compagnon' ne s'applique pas eux.
Voici des propos d'ulmas au sujet des hadiths susmentionns:
1. An-Nawawi (Puisse Allah lui accorder Sa misricorde) dit dans le cadre de son explication du hadith: Le sens donner au hadith fait l'objet d'une divergence au sein des ulmas, d'o les avisque voici:
Le premier des avis est qu'il y s'agit des hypocrites et des apostasis car il est possible qu'ils soient rassembls porteurs d'une marque lumineuse au visage et des traces des ablutions et le Prophte (Bndiction et salut soient sur lui)les interpellera grce ces marques et on lui dira: Ceux-l ne font pas partie des gens couverts par la promesse qui vous a t faite car ils avaient chang de comportement aprs toi. En d'autres termes: ils n'ont maintenu jusqu' leur mort l'engagement islamique qu'ils avaient affich.
Le deuxime est qu'on entend par l ceux qui taient musulmans du vivant du Prophte (Bndiction et salut soient sur lui) et qui, par la suite s'taient apostasis. Le Prophte (Bndiction et salut soient sur lui) les interpellera, mme s'ils ne porteront plus les traces des ablutions car il les avait connus musulmans et on lui apprendra leur apostasie survenue aprs lui.
Le troisime est qu'il y s'agit des auteurs d'actes de rbellion et de pchs majeurs morts attachs la foi en l'unicit d'Allah et des partisans d'innovations qui ne les excluent pas de l'islam. Charh Mouslim (3/136-137).
2. Al-Hafezh ibn Hadjar (Puisse Allah lui accorder Sa misricorde) dit: Selon al-Khattabi, aucun des compagnons du Prophte ne s'apostasia .Seuls l'ont fait des arabes grossiers qui n'avaient apport aucun soutien la religion. Ce qui ne peut servir de prtexte pour critiquer les compagnons bien clbres. L'emploi du diminutif exprime la faiblesse du nombre (des compagnons en question). Voir Fateh al-Bari (11/385).
3.Cheikh Abdoul Qahir al-Baghdadi (Puisse Allah lui accorder Sa misricorde) dit: Tous les fidles partisans de la Sunna sont d'avis que ceux qui s'taient apostasis aprs le dcs du Prophte (Bndiction et salut soient sur lui) taient issus des (tribus) Kinda, Hanifa, Fazara, Bani Assad, etBani Baker ibn Wael et n'appartenaient ni aux Ansari ni aux Emigrs (venus Mdine) avant la conqute de La Mecque. L'appellation de mouhadjirons est rservedans la loi religieuse ceux migrs avant ladite conqute, hommes et femmes qui, par la grce d'Allah, restrent fidle la droite religion et suivirent le droit chemin.
Les fidles partisans de la Sunna sont tous d'avis que ceux qui assistrent la bataille de Badre iront au paradis ainsi queceux qui participrent la prestation du serment d'allgeance d'agrment survenu Houdaybiya. Voir al-Farq bayn al-Firaq,p. 353.
4. Chatibi (Puisse Allah lui accorder Sa misricorde) a dit: Ce qui semble plus vident est qu'ils font partie de l'ensemble des membres de la communaut cause des marques qu'ils porteront, notamment le signalement lumineux et les tracesdont seront privs les mcrants d'origine et lesapostats. On dduit ce sens de l'expression: ils ont chang aprs toi s'il s'agissait d'une mcrance, on aurait dit: ils sont tombs dans la mcrance aprs toi.
L'acception la plus plausible du concept 'altration de la Sunna' est la commission d'innovations. Celui qui dit qu'il s'agit de l'hypocrisie s'carte de ce que nous entendons dire. En effet, les hypocrites n'adoptent la charia que pour leur propre protection et non par conviction. Ils en font une application inapproprie, ce qui constitue une vritable innovation.
Ceci s'applique toute personne qui utilise la Sunna et son applicationdans le cadre d'une ruse visant se procurer le clinquant de ce bas monde et non pour adorer Allah Trs-haut car cela reprsente une altration et un dtournement du concept sunna de son sens religieux. Voir al-I'tisam (1/96).
5 Al-Qourtoubi (Puisse Allah lui accorder Sa misricorde) a dit: Selon nos ulmas (Puisse Allah accorder Sa misricorde eux tous): tout fidle qui s'apostasie ou invente dans la religion ce qu'Allah n'agre pas et n'autorise pas, fait partie de ceux qui seront exclus du bassin et repouss trs loin. Celui qui sera exclu avec la plus grande duret est celui qui se dmarque de l'ensemble des musulmans et quitte le chemin qui les rassemble; l'instar des kharidjites et leurs diffrentes groupuscules ; l'instar des rafidites en dpit de leurs aberrantes divergences internes et l'instar de diffrentes composantes des mutazilites. Tous ceux-l sont des innovateurs. Il en est de mme des injustes qui exagrent leurs actes d'injustice, de dissimulation de la vrit, de l'excution de ses partisans, de leur humiliation; des auteurs notoires de pchs majeurs, de ceux qui minimisent les actes de rbellion; des groupes dvoys , livrs la passion et aux innovations.
L'loignement (du bassin ) peut arriver dans un cas et les loigns peuvent ensuite bnficier du pardon et d'un rapprochement si le changement qui avait justifi leur sort portait sur leurs actes et non sur leur foi. A supposer qu'il soit ainsi, les loigns conserveraientla lumire grce laquelle ils seront reconnus puis on leur dira: allez-vous en loin. Si les loigns taient issus des hypocrites qui, du temps du Messager d'Allah (Bndiction et salut soient sur lui) affichaient leur adhrence la foi mais dissimulaient leur mcrance et taient traits en fonction de leur apparence. Dans l'au-del, on enlvera le voile et dira:Allez-vous en loin! Allez-vous en loin!. Ne restera ternellement en enfer qu'un mcrant, un ngateur qui juge la foi fausse et n'en possde mme pas le poids d'une graine de moutarde dans son cur. at-Tadhkirah fii ahwal al-mawtaa wad-daar al-aakhira,p.352.
Troisimement, fait partie des lments qui dmentissent la prtention des rafidites selon laquelle les augustes compagnonscomme Abou Baker, Omar et Outhmane font partie de ceux qui s'taient apostasis, le caractre indubitable du mouvement apostasique et de la guerre contre les apostats. Qui a combattu qui? Les apostasis sont ceux parmi les tribus arabes que nous avons dj mentionns. C'est Abou Baker as-Siddiq (P.A.a) et ses frres issus des Emigrs et des Ansari qui les combattirent. Ali ibn Abi Talib (P.A.a) y participa et fit une captive issue des Bani Hanifa qui lui donna son fils, l'illustre rudit, Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiya. Si lesnobles compagnons, Abou Baker etOmar et leurs collgues issus des Emigrs et des Ansari s'taient apostasis, que dire de Mousaylima et ses partisans et d'Al-Ansi et les siens? Voil la vraie hypocrisie, la fausse querelle et le faux tmoignage.
Cheikh al-islam, Ibn Taymiya (Puisse Allah lui accorder Sa misricorde) a dit:Qu'Allah est grand! Voil des apostasis, menteurs , adeptes d'autres apostasis qui s'taient fait remarquer par leur inimiti envers Allah , Son Messager, Son livre et Sa religion. Ils renoncrent l'islam, le jetrent loin derrire eux, s'opposrent Allah, Son messager et Ses fidles serviteurs et s'allirent aux apostats belliqueux. Les extraits suscits de leurs propos et d'autres similaires prouvent vraiment qu'ilstraitent le Siddiq (P.A.a) et ses collgues avec un esprit partisan conformment aux (principes) de leurs croyances. Ces gens-l sontde l'espce des apostats mcrants combattus par as-Siddiq (P.A.a) Voir Minhadj as-sunna an-nabawiyya (4/490).
Ibn Taymiya (Puisse Allah lui accorder Sa misricorde) poursuit: En somme, l'affaire Mousaylima, le Menteur, notamment sa prtention d'accder la prophtie, l'adhsion des Bani Hanifa de Yamamah sa cause, le combat dclench par le Siddiq contre eux, procdent d'une ralit concordante et clbre que tout le monde connait parce que rpandue comme toutes les affaires de cette nature.
Il ne s'agit pas d'une affaire dont la connaissance est rserve un groupe particulier. Sa connaissance par le public est plus vidente que leur connaissance de la Bataille du Chameau et celle de Siffine. Il est rapport que certains thologiens scolastiques nientl'historicit de ces deux vnements. Cette ngation, bien que fausse (n'en fut pas moins exprime). Cependant, nous ne sachions pas que quelqu'un ait jamais ni le combat livr aux gens de Yamama et la prtention de Mousaylima, le Menteur , d'avoir accd au statut de prophte et le combat qui lui fut livr pour cette raison.
L'ignorance et la ngation de cette ralit (historique) par Les rafidites sont assimilables leur contestation de l'enterrement d'Abou Baker et Omar aux cts du Prophte (Bndiction et salut soient sur lui) , de la loyaut des deux compagnons envers le Prophte (Bndiction et salut soient sur lui) et leur allgation selon laquelle Alli fut dsign calife par crit (prophtique). Pire, il y a au sein des rafidites un groupe qui conteste que Zaynab, Roqayya et Oum Kalthoum furent des filles du Prophte (Bndiction et salut soient sur lui). Ils disent qu'elles furent les filles du mari mcrant de Khadijda qui l'avait pous avant son mariage avec le Prophte (Bndiction et salut soient sur lui) Voir Minhadj as-sunna an-nabawiyya (4/492-493).
Ibn Taymiya poursuit encore:Ils (les rafidites) allguent qu'Abou Baker, Omar et ceux qui les suivirent abjurrent l'islam. Or, tout le monde sait que c'est Abou Baker qui combattit les apostasis. S'ils prtendent que les gens de Yamama furent opprims et combattus injustement sur la base d'une (fausse ) interprtation tout en contestant la ralit du combat qui leur fut livr, cela prouve que l'actuelle gnration rafidite est comme l'ancienne et que ceux qui les ont toujours et partout combattus reprsentent as-Siddiq et ses partisans.
Les propos du rafidite,Ibn al-Moutehiral-Hilli: Ils (les sunnites) qualifient les Bani Hanifad'apostats cause de leur refus de payer la zakat Abou Baker constituent un mensonge criard car Abou Baker combattit Bani Hanifa pour leur croyance en la prophtie de Mousaylima, le Menteur. Quant ceux qui refusrent le paiement de la zakat , ils constituaient un groupe diffrent des Bani Hanifa et au sujet duquel certains compagnons doutaient de la licit de les combattre, contrairement aux Bani Hanfia dont tout le monde tait d'accord sur la ncessit de leur faire la guerre. Voir Minhadj as-Sunna an-nabawiyya (4/493-494).
Quatrimement, on doit dire ces rafidites: pourquoi les trois califes renirent leur foi sans qu'Alli en ft autant?! Qu'est ce qui explique que Ammar ibn Yaasir, Miqdad ibn al-Aswad, Abou Dharr et Salman al-Farissi furent excepts de l'apostasie? N'y a-t-il l que l'arbitraire et la passion?
Quant nous, nous croyons que les Emigrs et les Ansari sjourneront ternellement au paradis car Allah Trs-haut a dit: Les tout premiers (croyants) parmi les Emigrs et les Auxiliaires et ceux qui les ont suivis dans un beau comportement, Allah les agre, et ils L'agrent. Il a prpar pour eux des Jardins sous lesquels coulent les ruisseaux, et ils y demeureront ternellement. Voil l'norme succs! (Coran,9:100).
Nous croyons , en effet, qu'Abou Baker est au paradis, Omar est au paradis, Outhmane est au paradis et Ali est au paradis. Il en est de mme de tous ceux cits nommment par le Prophte (Bndiction et salut soient sur lui). Nous croyons que tous ceux-l boiront du bassin du Prophte (Bndiction et salut soient sur lui) jusqu' satit et que malheur et humiliation frapperont ceux qui les auront maudit et dclar mcrants. Ceux qui adoptent cette attitude mritent mieux que quiconquede figurer au jour de la Rsurrection dans les rangs des apostats combattus par ces hommes purs.
Cinquimement, les hadiths susmentionns condamnent les rafidites car ils y affirmentl'apostasie des Compagnons (P.A.a) l'exception d'un petitgroupe d'entre eux et prtendent qu'ils avaient chang de comportement aprs le dcs du Prophte (Bndiction et salut soient sur lui). Ce qui implique qu'ils avaient cru auparavant. Quelle est la religion qu'ils avaient adopte? Qu'avaient ils fait pour mriter d'tre qualifis de mcrants? S'ils disent : la destitution d'Ali de sa fonction de calife, on leur rpondra que c'tait un acte de dsobissance envers Allah qui peut tre expi grce leurs actes de bienfaisance. Vos insultes et votre maldiction profrs contre les compagnons suffiront pour que leurslourdes fautesvous soient transfres, s'il plait Allah.
S'ils disent : c'est cause de l'excution du ftus de Fatima, nous leur rpondons que du temps d'Ali (P.A.a) des milliers de personnes furent tues. Allez vous leur appliquer la rgle qui ferait d'elles des mcrants?
Tout ce qui prcde prouve que les augustes compagnons ont dfendu la religion d'Allah et stopp le flux de l'apostasie dclench et propuls par les devanciers de ces rafiditescomme Mousaylima, le Menteur, et al-Aswad al-Ansi. Allah Trs-haut a rendu hommage dans Son saint livre aux Emigrs et aux Ansari, un livre rcit jusqu' l'avnement de l'Heure. Allah les a dclars exempts de toute innovation en religion. Comment ds lors pouvaient-ils tomber dans l'apostasie aprs avoir propag l'islam dans les (diffrentes )rgions?
Allah le sait mieux.

Source: Islam Q&A




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